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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
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Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979), was the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)— the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979. His eldest daughter, Benazir Bhutto, would also serve as Prime minister, while his son Murtaza Bhutto, served as member of Parliament of Pakistan.

Early Life

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born to Khursheed Begum nee Lakhi Bai and Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto. He was born in a prominent Sindhi Shia Muslim Arain family. His mother converted from Hinduism to Islam before her marriage. Bhutto's father was a prominent political figure in the Indian colonial government. Bhutto was born in his parent's residence near Larkana in what later became the province of Sindh. He was their third child — their first one, Sikandar Ali, died from pneumonia at age seven in 1914 and the second child, Imdad Ali, died of cirrhosis at the age of 39 in 1953. His father was a wealthy landlord, a zamindar, and a prominent politician in Sindh, His father was the prime minister of Junagadh State, who enjoyed an influential relationship with the officials of the British Raj. As a young boy, Bhutto moved to Worli Seaface in Bombay (now Mumbai) to study at the Cathedral and John Connon School. During this period, he also became a student activist in the League's Pakistan Movement. In 1943, his marriage was arranged with Shireen Amir Begum (died January 19, 2003 in Karachi). He later left her, however, in order to remarry. In 1947, Bhutto was admitted to the University of Southern California.

  • Cathedral School, Bombay - 1937 - 1947
  • Joined University of Southern California - 1947
  • Transferred to Berkely Campus of USC - 1949
  • First Asian to be elected to Berkely Student Council
  • Graduated with Honours in Political Science - 1950
  • Admitted to Christ Church College, Oxford - 1950
  • Graduated with Honours from Oxford University - 1952
  • Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn - 1953
  • Lecturer of Sindh Muslim Law College - 1954
  • Member of Pakistan Delegation to the United Nations - 1957
  • Addressed the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression - October 25, 1957
  • Leader of Pakistan Delegation to United Nations Conference on the Law of the Seas, addressed the Conference on the Freedom of the Seas.- March - 1958
Political Career
In 1957, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the youngest member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations. He would address the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression on 25 October 1957 and lead Pakistan's deputation to the first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1958. In the same year, Bhutto became the youngest Pakistan cabinet minister when he was given charge of the Energy ministry by President Field Marshal Ayub Khan, who had seized power, through a successful coup d'état, and declared martial law in the country. In 1960, he was subsequently promoted to minister of the Commerce Ministry, and Ministry of Information and Industry Ministry. Throughout this time, Bhutto became a close and trusted political advisor to Field Marshal Ayub Khan, rising in influence and power despite his youth and relative inexperience in politics. Bhutto aided Ayub Khan in negotiating the Indus Water Treaty in India in 1960. He is strongest. In 1961, Bhutto negotiated an oil exploration agreement with the Soviet Union, which also agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan.
  • Minister of Commerce - 1958
  • Minister for Information and National Reconstruction - 1959
  • Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources - 1960
  • Leader of Pakistan Delegation to the UN - 1959, 1960, 1963 & 1965
  • Statement in support of Algeria against French Imperialism at UN - 1959
  • Leader of Pakistan Delegation to Moscow to negotiate agreement on Oil and Gas Exploration with Soviet Union with 120 Million Roubles credit - 1960
  • Led Pakistan's Delegation to UN and differed with US by not voting against China's Membership - 1960
  • Foreign Minister of Pakistan - 1963 - 1965
  • Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement, gaining 750 Square Miles for Pakistan 2nd March - 1963
  • Famous Speech at the U.N. Security Council "We will wage a war for a thousand years" - 22-23 September 1965
  • Resigned from the Federal Cabinet - June, 1966
Pakistan Peoples Party
Historic welcome in Lahore after leaving Ayub's Cabinet as Foreign Minister, large crowds gathered to listen to Bhutto's speech on 21 June 1967. Tapping a wave of anger and opposition against Ayub, Bhutto began travelling across the country to deliver political speeches. In a speech in October 1966 Bhutto declared manifesto of Pakistan Peoples Party , "Islam is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy. All power to the people." On 30 November 1967, in a residence of Dr. Mubashir Hassan, Bhutto, along with J.A. Rahim and Dr. Mubashir Hassan, founded the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) in Lahore, establishing a strong base of political support in Punjab, Sindh and amongst the Muhajir communities. In the general elections held in December 1970, P. P. P. won a large majority in West Pakistan but failed to reach an agreement with Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman, the majority winner from East Pakistan. Following the 1971 War and the separation of East Pakistan, Yahya Khan resigned and Bhutto took over as President and Chief Martial Law Administrator on December 20, 1971.
  • Historic welcome in Lahore after resignation as Foreign Minister - 21st June, 1966
  • Manifesto of Pakistan Peoples Party prepared: "Islam is our Faith, Democracy is our Policy, Socialism is our Economy, All Power to the People". October, 1966
  • Foundation of Pakistan Peoples Party, Lahore - 30th November, 1967
  • Led Mass Movement for Restoration of Democracy - 1968
  • Arrested for creating disaffection against Government - November 12, 1968
  • Landslide victory for PPP in 1970 elections in present day Pakistan - December 7, 1970
President/Prime Minister of Pakistan
A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent to fetch Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan's case before the United Nations Security Council on the East Pakistan Crises. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator, thus he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the dismembered Pakistan.

The new President inherited a disheartened war-weary nation. In this dark hour, he addressed the nation via radio and television, saying "My dear countrymen, my dear friends, my dear students, labourers, peasants… those who fought for Pakistan… We are facing the worst crisis in our country's life, a deadly crisis. We have to pick up the pieces, very small pieces, but we will make a new Pakistan, a prosperous and progressive Pakistan." He placed Yahya under house arrest, brokered a ceasefire and ordered the release of Sheikh Mujib, who was held prisoner by the army. To implement this, Bhutto reversed the verdict of Mujib's court trial that had taken place earlier, in which the presiding Brigadier Rahimuddin Khan(later General) had sentenced Mujib to death. Appointing a new cabinet, Bhutto appointed Gen. Gul Hasan as Chief of Army Staff.

On January 2, 1972 Bhutto announced the nationalisation of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electricals, petrochemicals, cement and public utilities. A new labour policy was announced increasing workers rights and the power of trade unions. Although he came from a feudal background himself, Bhutto announced reforms limiting land ownership and a government take-over of over a million acres (4,000 km²) to distribute to landless peasants. More than 2,000 civil servants were dismissed on charges of corruption. Bhutto also dismissed the military chiefs on March 3 after they refused orders to suppress a major police strike in Punjab. He appointed Gen. Tikka Khan as the new Chief of the Army Staff in March 1972 as he felt the General would not interfere in political matters and would concentrate on rehabilitating the Pakistan Army. Bhutto convened the National Assembly on April 14, rescinded martial law on April 21 and charged the legislators with writing a new constitution.

He gave the third Constitution to the country and established civilian authority over the armed forces in the political setup. In early 1972, Bhutto nationalised ten categories of major industries and withdrew Pakistan from the Commonwealth of Nations and S.E.A.T.O. On 1 March, he introduced extensive land reforms. On 2 July 1972, he signed the Simla Agreement with India for exchange of the occupied territories and release of Prisoners of War.

After the 1973 Constitution was promulgated, Pakistan changed from a presidential system to a parliamentary one. Bhutto was duly elected by the House to be the Prime Minister, and he was sworn in on 14 August 1973.

Father of the Nuclear weapons program
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme, and due to his administrative and aggressive leadership to lead this nuclear deterrence programme, Bhutto is often known as Father of Nuclear deterrence programme. In October 1965, as Foreign Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto visited Vienna when Munir Ahmad Khan informed him of the status of Indian nuclear programme and the options Pakistan had to develop its own nuclear capability. Both agreed on the need for Pakistan to develop a nuclear deterrent to meet India's nuclear capacity. While, Munir Ahmad Khan had failed to convince Ayub Khan, Bhutto had said to Munir Ahmad Khan: Don't worry, our turn will come. Shortly, after the 1965 war, Bhutto in a press conference, famously declared that "even if we have to eat grass, we will make nuclear bomb. We have no other choice." as he saw India was making its way to develop the bomb.

Betrayal and Assassination
General Elections were held on March 7, 1977. PPP emerged as the victorious Party. At the behest of General Ziaul Haq, PNA accused government of so-called rigging in the elections. Negotiations with PNA resumed. An Agreement was reached on June 8, 1977 for holding Fresh Elections on October 8, 1977.

On July 5, 1977 COAS General Ziaul Haq imposed Martial Law unilaterally. The National Assembly, the Senate and Provincial Assemblies were dissolved and Constitution held in abeyance.

Zia's Military Junta established a dummy government of PNA with CMLA as President. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto arrested on July, 5, 1977 and released on July 28, 1977.

Re-arrested on September 3, 1977 from Clifton, Karachi, on the charges of a fabricated murder case; again released on September 13, 1977 against Lahore High Court bail. Re-arrested at Larkana on September 17, 1977.

On September, 1977 the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mr. Justice Yakub Ali Khan was suspended from service because he had admitted Mrs. Nusrat Bhuto's Petition challenging imposition of martial law.

On October 9, 1977, Maulvi Mushtaq, Chief Justice, Lahore High Court, cancelled the bail already granted to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto by LHC.

Mercilessly and despicably murdered on April 4, 1979.

Image and Praise
Bhutto's international image was more of an Internationalist with a secular image. In spite of all the criticism—and subsequent media trials—Bhutto still remains the most popular leader of the country. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology is named for him; his daughter was chairman of its board of trustees. Under his democratic premiership, Bhutto was responsible for supervising the promulgation of Pakistan's third 1973 constitution for which he successfully obtained approval from all of political parties in Pakistan. Because of his administrative and aggressive nature to lead the nuclear weapons programme, Bhutto, in the world, is often and commonly regarded as the Father of Pakistan's nuclear deterrence programme, in spite of Pakistan's limited financial resources and strong opposition from other countries, particularly the United States. In order to retrieve 93,000 P.O.Ws held in India and to avoid another major conflict, Bhutto held peace talks with arch-rival neighbor India and successfully signed Simla Agreement with Indira Gandhi, Premier of India during this time period. In 2006, while globally publishing the article, "The Wrath of Khan", The Atlantic described Bhutto as demagogic and extremely populist, but Pakistan's greatest civilian leader. Whereas, the Bombay Times referred to Bhutto as "genius" and "person with brilliant manner". Despite Henry Kissinger developed differences with Bhutto and his colleagues, Kissinger could not hide his expression in 1979 when he quoted Bhutto as "brilliant, charming, of global stature in his perception". While, Bhutto's former Law Minister Mairaj Muhammad Khan described Bhutto as "a great man but cruel". His family remained active and influential in politics, with first his wife and then his daughter becoming leader of the PPP political party. His eldest daughter, Benazir Bhutto, was twice Prime minister of Pakistan, and was assassinated on 27 December 2007, while campaigning for 2008 elections. While his son, Murtaza Bhutto, served as the Member Parliament of Pakistan, and was also assassinated in a controversial police encounter. With all the criticism and opposition, Bhutto remained highly influential and respected figure even after his death. In 2011, in a gallop survey managed and taken by Dawn Newspapers, Bhutto was voted and listed as Pakistan's one of the few greatest leader, and came in second place while Jinnah— Pakistan's founder— listed and voted in first place. Bhutto is widely regarded as being among the most influential men in the history of Pakistan. His supporters gave him the title Quaid-e-Awam (Leader of the people).

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